How does intestinal tuberculosis spread?

11/02/2019 Off By admin

How does intestinal tuberculosis spread?

Tuberculosis bacteria reach the gastrointestinal tract via haematogenous spread, ingestion of infected sputum, or direct spread from infected contiguous lymph nodes and fallopian tubes.

Is TB in the intestine contagious?

Yes, TB is highly contagious and can be transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person, mainly when a person with TB coughs, sneezes, speaks, or even sings (known as airborne transmission or airborne disease).

When is surgery required for abdominal TB?

Conclusion: Surgical intervention is warranted in a subset of patients with abdominal tuberculosis and may be required in patients with recurrent intestinal obstruction or pain, intestinal perforation, or gastrointestinal bleeding.

How is abdominal TB treated?

Abdominal TB needs to be treated with at least 3-4 anti TB drugs for the initial 2 months and subsequently 2 anti TB drugs for at least 7-10 months. The commonly used drugs during the initial 2 months therapy (intensification phase) are Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide.

Can intestinal tuberculosis be cured?

TB cases were followed-up for a median of 7.1 months (maximum 16.9 months). Final outcome was recorded for 92% of gastrointestinal TB cases. Of these, 79% successfully completed treatment or were cured; no case of treatment failure was recorded.

Can abdominal TB come back?

TB infection can relapse many years after initial treatment, so ideally long follow‐up periods are required to assess relapse rates. However, most deaths associated with abdominal TB seem to occur within the first weeks after diagnosis (Mamo 2013).

What are the symptoms of intestinal tuberculosis?

Clinical features of intestinal TB include abdominal pain, weight loss, anemia, and fever with night sweats. Patients may present with symptoms of obstruction, right iliac fossa pain, or a palpable mass in the right iliac fossa.

How does the spread of tuberculosis take place?

Transmission occurs by airborne spread of infectious droplets. The source of infection is a person with TB of the lung who is coughing. TB of the lung is pulmonary TB (PTB). This person is usually sputum smear-positive (see Chapter 3). Coughing produces tiny infectious droplets (droplet nuclei).

How does abdominal tuberculosis enter the intestinal tract?

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ABDOMINAL TB There are several ways by which tuberculosis can involve abdomen (Table ​(Table11)[10,11]. Firstly, the tubercle bacilli may enter the intestinal tract through the ingestion of infected milk or sputum.

When do you need surgery for abdominal tuberculosis?

Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases.

What is the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal tuberculosis?

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis. The differential diagnosis of duodenal TB can be lymphoma, malignancy, atypical peptic ulcer disease or carcinoma of head of pancreas. Since the features of duodenal TB can be nonspecific, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis.