What does top-down modulation mean?

09/30/2019 Off By admin

What does top-down modulation mean?

Top-down modulation. Modulation of neural activity in neurons in lower-order sensory or motor areas based on an individual’s goals. This may involve enhancement of task-relevant representations and/or suppression for task-irrelevant representations.

What is an example of top-down processing?

One classic example of top-down processing in action is a phenomenon known as the Stroop effect. In this task, people are shown a list of words printed in different colors. They’re then asked to name the ink color, rather than the word itself.

What is attentional modulation?

Attentional modulation was quantified according to an attention index that is the difference between attended and unattended responses divided by the sum of attended and unattended responses to identical visual stimulation. Thus positive values indicate facilitation, and negative values, suppression.

What is top-down consciousness?

Another approach is the “top-down” paradigm, which argues that anesthetics suppress consciousness by modulating the cortical and thalamocortical circuits involved in the integration of neural information. We show how this explains certain empirical observations regarding the diversity of anesthetic drug effects.

What modulation means?

Modulation is the process of converting data into radio waves by adding information to an electronic or optical carrier signal. A carrier signal is one with a steady waveform — constant height, or amplitude, and frequency.

What does psychophysics mean?

Psychophysics is the subfield of psychology devoted to the study of physical stimuli and their interaction with sensory systems. Psychophysical tasks have been extensively used to draw conclusions on how information is processed by the visual and other sensory systems.

Is a top-down process?

Top-down processing is the process of using context or general knowledge to understand what we perceive. We use top-down processing to quickly understand the sensory input we take in when we interact with different environments.

What is the difference between top-down and bottom-up theories of perception?

Bottom-up processing begins with the retrieval of sensory information from our external environment to build perceptions based on the current input of sensory information. Top-down processing is the interpretation of incoming information based on prior knowledge, experiences, and expectations.

Why do we need modulation?

Modulation allows us to send a signal over a bandpass frequency range. If every signal gets its own frequency range, then we can transmit multiple signals simultaneously over a single channel, all using different frequency ranges. Another reason to modulate a signal is to allow the use of a smaller antenna.

What are the benefits of modulation?

Advantages of Modulation

  • Antenna size gets reduced.
  • No signal mixing occurs.
  • Communication range increases.
  • Multiplexing of signals occur.
  • Adjustments in the bandwidth is allowed.
  • Reception quality improves.

Which is the best description of the process of modulation?

Modulation Definition. Modulation is the process of mixing a low energy message signal with the high energy carrier signal to produce a new high energy signal which carries information to a long distance.

When do you use modulation in a sentence?

— Cameron Fields, cleveland, 7 July 2021 Her thoughts were cut short by the loud, familiar cackle of Maisy Glendower, a squirrelly editor who appreciated modulation only when someone else was practicing it. — Rachel Epstein, Marie Claire, 1 June 2021

What kind of modulation is used in FM radio?

For example, AM is used in shortwave and radio wave broadcasting; FM is mostly used in high-frequency radio broadcasting, and pulse modulation is known for digital signal modulation.

When does distortion occur in a modulating signal?

Distortion takes place when the amplitude of the modulating signal is greater than the amplitude of the carrier. This results in the transmission of incorrect information. What is the reference line for the modulating signal?